Posts Tagged ‘Hubble Space Telescope’

3C 348 (Hercules A)

Saturday, April 18th, 2015

3C 348 opticalTreating gravity as the dominate force in the Universe and extragalactic redshifts as evidence of cosmic expansion creates a lot of unnecessary headaches for astrophysicists and cosmologists.  A good example of this is an object posted in the gallery, galaxy 3C 348 and its radio loud core Hercules A.   Mainstream scientists calculate that this galaxy’s spectral redshift of 0.155 z (z = (observed wavelength – rest wavelength)/(rest wavelength)) puts it at distance of over 2 billion light years expanding away from us at almost 43,000 kilometers per second.

At first glance 3C 348 looks like just another ordinary elliptical galaxy and the radio jets of Hercules A appear typical of many other such jets that have been observed.  But by placing them at such a huge cosmological distance scientists have created a monster.   To account for this object’s angular size at such a great distance scientists have Hercules A radiocalculated that the galaxy is over a 1,000 times more massive than the Milky Way Galaxy and the jets streaming from the center of Hercules A are each almost a million light years long.  They have also calculated that the central black hole powering these jets is nearly 1,000 times more massive than the black hole in the center of our galaxy or 3 to 4 billion times the mass of our sun.  This makes it one of the largest black holes known.

How do astrophysicists account for such a colossal object?  The simple answer is they can’t.  An object of this size just cannot be explained using any known physics or even hypothetical processes.  But of course scientists only assume it’s so large because they also assume its redshift is a result of cosmic expansion.  But there are other explanations for extragalactic redshifts, especially in a universe dominated by plasma and the electromagnetic force instead of gravity.

For example, Thomas Smid and Ari Brynjolfsson both have proposed intriguing and testable theories that light is redshifted when it passes through intergalactic plasma.  It has even been suggested that Brynjolfsson’s theory has already been proven in the laboratory.  3C 348 and Hercules AIf true, plasma redshifts would completely change our current understanding of the universe.  To quote Brynjolfsson from his website:  “Plasma redshift explains the solar redshifts, the intrinsic redshifts of stars, quasars, the galactic corona, the cosmological redshifts, the cosmic microwave background, and the X-ray background.  The plasma redshift explains the observed magnitude-redshift relation for supernovae SNe Ia without the big bang, dark matter, or dark energy.  It explains also the observed surface brightness of galaxies.  There is no cosmic time dilation.  The universe is not expanding…..the universe is quasi-static, infinite, and everlasting.  The universe can renew itself forever.”

Images credit:  NASA, ESA, S. Baum and C. O’Dea (RIT), R. Perley and W. Cotton (NRAO/AUI/NSF), and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)

NOTE:  This object is also posted on the Plasma Pics online image gallery and discussion site.

RXJ0911+0551

Thursday, April 12th, 2012

RXJ0911+0551 is another excellent example of a multiple quasar system described as a gravitational lens by astronomers and astrophysicists.  As with my previous two examples, the Einstein Cross and PG1115+80, this system consists of four high redshift quasars encircling a lower redshift central galaxy.  In SIMBAD the quasars are listed as a single object QSO B0908+0603 and the central galaxy is listed as [KCH2000] L2.    QSO B0908+0603 is listed as having a redshift of 2.7933 z which supposedly places it at a distance of 11.5 billion light years  using a so-called Hubble Constant value of 70 (km/s)/Mpc.   [KCH2000] L2 is listed as having a redshift of 0.7689 z which supposedly places it at a distance of 6.8 billion light years from Earth also using a so-called Hubble Constant value of 70 (km/s)/Mpc.  However, despite being allegedly separated by a distance of almost five billion light years, filaments of material can be seen connecting the central galaxy with the surrounding quasars in this system.

The above pair of images is from the CfA-Arizona Space Telescope LEns Survey (CASTLES) which utilized Hubble Space Telescope optical and near infrared images using NICMOS/NIC2 for H band observations and WFPC2/PC1 for V and I band images when none exist.  The image on the right has been “cleaned” using image filtering software based on hypothetical gravitational lens models.  Yet the image still clearly shows faint streamers of material between the central galaxy and encircling quasars, but they are not mirrored as would be expected in a gravitational lens.   The near-infrared image on the right is from the 2.56 m Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) using the High Resolution Adaptive Camera (HIRAC) and from the ESO 3.5 m New Technology Telescope (NTT) using the “Son of ISAAC” (SOFI) near-infrared camera.  It shows a jet of material on both sides of the central galaxy with one jet connecting it with the lower left quasar in the system.  But again nothing is mirrored as would be expected in a true gravitational lens.

Astronomers have observed the x-ray fluctuations of the four quasars in RXJ0911+0551 in the hopes that a shared flare up between them would prove that they are merely mirages of the same background quasar.   A sudden increase in x-ray intensity was detected using the Chandra X-ray Observatory.  But the flare up, which lasted for more than half an hour, only occurred for one of the four quasars.  Astronomers measured x-ray intensities of the four quasars for over eight hours but the flare up never repeated in any of the other three.  The image below on the left is taken from the Chandra Press Room and shows the light curves of two of the quasars with the flare up clearly visible in one and not the other.  Astronomers refused to give up and claimed that the flare ups of the other quasars must have occurred before their observations were made.  The astronomers also claimed that a long term observation of this system will reveal shared flare ups among the quasar “mirages” providing precise extragalactic measurements and thereby allowing the expansion rate of the universe to be better estimated.  The original observations were made back in 2000 and despite all of these claims there have still yet to be any long term observations made of RXJ0911+0551.

Time and again scientists have tried to prove that this quadruple quasar system is a gravitational lens and time and again they have failed.  It is interesting that multiple quasar systems contain a limited number of quasars encircling a central galaxy in a limited number of positions.  What can account for this and for the bridges of material between these objects?  As I speculated in my previous examples, perhaps this is due to the quasars being ejected from the central galaxy in a symmetrical tetrahedral pattern.  An excellent way to visualize such a pattern is to look at a Jmol model of a methane molecule.  I am not suggesting that methane plays any role in multiple quasar systems.   But the four hydrogen atoms surrounding the carbon atom in a methane molecule can be rotated to very closely match the positions of the quasars in multiple quasar systems, including RXJ0911+0551 as shown in the image below on the right.

The reason that quasars ejected from a central galaxy could be positioned in such a way is simplicity.  A tetrahedron has the least number of faces and angles of any geometric solid.   The least number of objects, other than a pair, that can be evenly spaced with matching angles around another centralized object is four, but only if they are positioned at the vertices of an imaginary orthographically projected tetrahedron.

There are many more examples of tetrahedral symmetry displayed in compact multiple quasar systems, several of which I would like to post.  But tell me readers, do you think this is a viable explanation for what has been reported as gravitational lensing in many systems?  Or are there other alternatives that can better explain the number and positioning of quasars in these multiple quasar systems?  Let me know and thanks for reading!

Shannon

PG1115+80

Thursday, February 2nd, 2012

The Einstein Cross is an excellent example of a probable quadruple quasar system described as a distant gravitational lens by current mainstream scientists.  In fact, there are many good examples of multiple quasars that surround and even appear to be ejected from dimmer, lower redshift central galaxies.  But unfortunately these objects too have been explained away as gravitational lenses, despite their lack of correlation with any known optical physics.

Take for instance PG1115+080 near the constellation Leo.  This object also consists of four quasars surrounding a dimmer, lower redshift core.  This central host galaxy displays a redshift of 0.31 z which supposedly places it over 2.9 billion light years away using a so-called Hubble Constant value of 85 (km/s)/Mpc.  The four quasars display identical redshifts of 1.7355 z each which supposedly place them at a much greater distance of almost 8.3 billion light years also using a so-called Hubble Constant value of 85 (km/s)/Mpc.

PG1115+80

Interestingly enough, most images of PG1115+080 show a tenuous connection between the central galaxy and one or more of the surrounding quasars, despite their accepted separation of over 5 billion light years.  In the above images from the 8.2 meter Subaru Telescope at the Mauna Kea Observatory in Hawaii filaments of various thicknesses are shown connecting the central galaxy with all four of the surrounding quasars!  PG1115+80 cleanedPG1115+80 optical and near infraredThe following image on the left is from the CfA-Arizona Space Telescope LEns Survey (CASTLES).  CASTLES utilized Hubble Space Telescope optical and near infrared images using NICMOS/NIC2 for H band observations and WFPC2/PC1 for V and I band images when otherwise unavailable.  The image also shows all four quasars connected to the central galaxy via tenuous bridges of material.  Even after the image is “cleaned” using image filtering software based on hypothetical gravitational lens models the two paired quasars at the lower left of the image on the right still display strong connections while very faint filaments are still visible between the other two quasars.

PG1115+80 infraredDespite this evidence there are still scientists who try to manipulate the data.  The pair of infrared images on the left is taken from the Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS.  The left image is the original while the right image has supposedly had the quasars and central galaxy digitally subtracted from it to reveal a lensed galaxy in the background.  There are a few problems with this processed image however.  Besides the dubious method of subtraction used to create the image, the resulting ring of light is incomplete and irregularly shaped and does not conform to any accepted PG1115+80 x-rayoptical physics or gravitational lens models.  The image to the right is a 7+ hour exposure of PG1115+080 made by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory.  If the light from a background quasar and its host galaxy is supposedly being lensed and is showing as a ring in infrared and possibly visible wavelengths why is there no trace of the hosting galaxy when it is viewed in the x-ray portion of the electromagnetic spectrum?  The most likely explanation is that there is no real ring nor any gravitational lensing occurring at all other than what scientists so desperately wish to see rather than face the stunning reality of their observations.

If the four quasars encircling the central galaxy in PG1115+80 are not the result of gravitational lensing then what can account for their number and positioning?    Why are quasars typically only located in a limited number of positions around the central galaxy in other compact quadruple quasar systems?  One very interesting theory is that these quasars have been ejected from the central galaxy in a symmetrical tetrahedral pattern.  The various filaments and connections observed between the quasars and the central galaxy in PG1115+80, the Einstein Cross and other quadruple quasar systems appears to confirm the ejection part of the theory.  But I must admit I have always had trouble visualizing a tetrahedron configuration for the quasars in these compact systems.  That was until one of my readers posted a comment under the Einstein Cross example.  He suggested the humble methane molecule as a visual aid for tetrahedral symmetry.  Of course it is not being suggested that methane plays any role in quadruple quasar systems.  But the four hydrogen atoms that surround the central carbon atom in methane are positioned at the vertices of an imaginary tetrahedron orthographically projected from the central carbon atom.  By rotating this tetrahedron the hydrogen atoms can be positioned so that they align themselves very closely with the majority of the quasar positions observed in compact quadruple quasar systems such as PG1115+80 and the Einstein Cross.

tetrahedral symmetryThe best way to view these alignments is to utilize a Java applet such as Jmol that allows viewing and manipulation of various molecules in orthographic perspective.  The easiest way to accomplish this is to search for “JMOL methane” in any search engine.  This query will return a variety of pages displaying the methane molecule in an embedded viewer.  By rotating the methane molecule displayed in one of these Java viewers I was able to line up the angles of the hydrogen atoms to almost precisely match the angles of the quasars surrounding the core of PG1115+80 in the above observations.  Any variance from the resulting image on the left is possibly due to the viewing angle and/or independent motion of the quasars since their ejections from the core.  I was also able to rotate the methane molecule to align its hydrogen atoms precisely with the positions of the quasars shown in the Einstein Cross.  Please be sure to visit this previously posted example to view the newly added resultant image.

So if the aforementioned objects are indeed formed by the ejection of quasars in a symmetrical tetrahedral pattern from a central galaxy why this particular pattern?  I proffer that the answer is simplicity.  A tetrahedron has the least number of faces and angles of any geometric solid.  Therefore, other than a pair, the least number of objects that can evenly encircle a central object with matching angles is four and only if they are positioned at the vertices of a tetrahedron.  There are many more examples of tetrahedral symmetry displayed in compact quadruple quasar systems.  I plan to post several more of these as time permits.  In the meantime continue to question the accepted theories, doubt the explanations given, and search for the truth about our universe and modern cosmology.  Thanks for reading!

Shannon

Einstein Cross

Monday, February 28th, 2011

ZW 2237+030This image from the European Southern Observatory is of the Einstein Cross, a name given to a group of four high redshift quasars (Q2237+030 or QSO 2237+0305) framing the nucleus of the galaxy ZW 2237+030 (QSO 2237+0305 G) also known as Huchra’s Lens located in the constellation Pegasus. The redshift of the nucleus of this spiral galaxy has been measured at 0.0394 z which would place it at a supposed distance of a little over 500 million light-years from Earth using a so-called Hubble Constant value of 75 (km/s)/Mpc. The four quasars all display the same redshift of 1.695 z which would supposedly place them over 20 times further away at a distance of over 10.6 billion light-years.

However a problem arises when closely examining the galactic nucleus and the four objects that surround it.

Einstein Cross I have taken a close-up image of the Einstein Cross from the ESO site and modified its color palette to produce a false color image as shown at the lower right. To product this image I simply opened the original in Adobe Photoshop, chose Image from the menu bar then Adjustments > Gradient Map… and set the color gradient to one of the preset options available. Changing the color gradient has not modified the pixel positions of the original photograph but has set their assigned colors to a smaller and more visible range according to their brightness. Though faint when viewed in the original grayscale image,  in the new color palette connections between the quasars and galactic nucleus are clearly visible. In fact, despite their discordant redshifts, the streaming bridges of material between the objects and the nucleus are undeniable.

Einstein Cross in false colorOf course, this undeniable proof has not led the scientific community to reexamine their current interpretation of extragalactic redshifts or their adamant belief in the Big Bang Theory. Instead, the existence of the Einstein Cross has been attributed to, of all things, gravitational lensing.  But this is a weak explanation at best. There is no valid scientific explanation given as to how a strong gravitational field would bend the light of a directly aligned background object into precisely four point objects.  The majority of theories and models of gravitational lensing actually predict a ring effect as the result of the bending of light around a strong source of gravity. In fact there are several gravitational lensing simulations available on the Web that visually demonstrate this effect. However I have yet to find one that simulates the effect supposedly displayed in the Einstein Cross.

Theories, models and simulations can indeed be helpful tools but nothing can match pure scientific observation.  There are many examples of gravitational lenses that have been recorded by various observatories and almost all of them are in the shape of rings or arcs. The following image is a small collection of such “Einstein Rings” as observed by the Hubble Space Telescope and made available from the HubbleSite.

Einstein Rings

It may seem extremely coincidental that four quasars with such exact matching redshifts have been observed in such close proximity to one another, particularly with several visibly connected to, and possibly even emerging from, the nucleus of a central galaxy.  However this does not excuse the dismissal of the observations by attempting to apply a misappropriated and improvable theory to them.  At the very least continued and improved observations of these objects, as well as all discordant redshift objects, need to be made.  Only then will we finally move past the theories and hopefully embrace the facts.

Shannon

tetrahedral symmetryUPDATE:  As suggested in the comment below by one of my readers, D R Lunsford, the positions of the objects in the Einstein Cross display tetrahedral symmetry.  An excellent example of this symmetry are the four hydrogen atoms surrounding the carbon atom in a molecule of methane.

The image on the left is the molecular structure of methane generated by a Java applet and rotated to perfectly match the positions of the quasars and central core of the Einstein Cross as also suggested in this reader’s comment.  For more information on tetrahedral symmetry as it applies to compact quadruple quasar systems please see my example PG1115+80.

Thanks for the visual aid DRL and thanks again for reading!

 

Stephan’s Quintet

Sunday, January 23rd, 2011

I have long pondered whether to ever post the following example.  It is possibly the single best example of visibly connected extragalactic objects with discordant redshifts in existence today.  The physical connection between the objects is so plainly visible and their associated redshifts so disparate that one would think I would not hesitate to feature them on this website.   Ironically, despite the overwhelmingly visible proof the following images provide, they also serve as stark reminders of just how stubborn and incredibly biased the current scientific community is in regards to discordant redshifts or any evidence that might throw the Big Bang Theory into question.

Stephan's Quintet

Stephan’s Quintet, also known as Hickson 92 and Arp 319, was discovered by Édouard Stephan in 1877 at Marseille Observatory located near Marseille, France.   As the name suggests, the Quintet is comprised of five objects, each one a galaxy, as shown in the above Hubble Space Telescope image.  They appear in close proximity to one another in the first compact galaxy cluster ever observed.  Four of the galaxies share the same yellow color and center morphology including very similar redshifts that supposedly place them at very similar distances (using a so-called Hubble Constant value of 55 (km/s)/Mpc) as follows, viewed from left to right:

Galaxy
Redshift (z) Distance (Mly)
NGC 7319 0.022507 398.1
NGC 7318B 0.019260 340.9
NGC 7318A 0.022115 391.2
NGC 7317 0.022012 389.4

The fifth galaxy, NGC 7320, with a distinctive bluish color and spiral morphology is clearly interacting with NGC 7318A and B.  Streamers of stars and gas from NGC 7320 are entrailed within their intertwined arms while long filaments spread outward and mix with the broad arms of NGC 7319.  Everyone, including astronomers and cosmologists alike, would be in absolute agreement with this observation if not for the peculiar fact that the redshift of NGC 7320 is only 0.002622 z.  This places it at a mere 46.6 million light years away or less than an eighth of the average distance of 380 million light years (Mly) for the other four galaxies according to the distance/acceleration interpretation of redshifts.  Yet despite its discordant redshift and apparent extreme separation, the interaction of NGC 7320 with its companions has been well observed in multiple wavelengths:

This mixed infrared-optical wavelength image shows unusually hot hydrogen gas as green streamers of H-alpha emissions connecting the arms of NGC 7318A and B with the galaxies NGC 7319 and 7320.  The original full size image is available from the Spitzer Space Telescope site where the accompanying article describes the discordant NGC 7320 as “the large spiral at the bottom left of the image” that is a “foreground object and is not associated with the cluster”. Stephan's Quintet infrared-optical
This mixed x-ray-optical image shows the same hot hydrogen as light blue streamers connecting the same four galaxies and possibly even the fifth, NGC 7317.  The original image and its individual layers are available at the Chandra X-Ray Observatory website where once again the connection with discordant NGC 7320 is flatly denied. The article on the main object page describes NGC 7320 as a “prominent foreground galaxy” that is “not a member of the group”. Stephan's Quintet x-ray-optical

These well-documented observations should be accepted as definitive proof that redshifts are not indicative of distance.  Instead they are once again explained away as mere coincidence or otherwise ignored completely.   When I have considered posting Stephan’s Quintet in the past I have hesitated because I feared it would serve to demotivate me in the fight to get the truth out to the public.  If the scientific community will deny even this example what hope is there to ever convince anyone to accept a different interpretation of redshift measurements?  Surprisingly, while preparing this article, I found myself inspired by the fact that the included observations and measurements are at least out there and available for anyone to see.  The evidence does really exist, it is not too difficult to obtain, and many times it is very plain to see its implications.  I also found inspiration in the recent encouragement I received from some of the readers of this site.  Thank you all again for your support.

So I will continue to post, and continue to hope that one day we will move past the current Ptolemaic-like view of the Universe and move towards solving its real mysteries!  I will also continue to encourage all visitors to this site to pursue their own observations and please feel free to contribute any examples to the cause.

Shannon