Note from Shannon Sims
|By reviewing my original theory and the follow-up discussions below it is easy to see how difficult it is to reconcile a universe in which gravity is the dominant force. But in a universe where electromagnetism dominates, the processes that shape its formation and structure are much easier to understand and duplicate. I encourage you to visit my new website, Plasma Pics, which hosts a growing collection of astounding images of plasma, the fourth state of matter, at multiple scales and in various states throughout the Universe.|
It is obvious that the Big Bang Theory will become obsolete if it is proven that extragalactic redshifts are not caused by an expanding universe and do not accurately measure acceleration or distance. Although the Discordancy Report was created to catalog and discuss discordant redshifts between visibly related extragalactic bodies, the question of what is causing this discordance will eventually have to be addressed. So, I present the following ideas to get things started. Please feel free to add your comments below after thoroughly reading through the material.
Astronomers have long observed that smaller and more compact celestial objects tend to have higher redshifts than larger and more diffuse objects. For example, objects such as quasars can appear as extremely compact points of light and possess the highest redshifts of all extragalactic bodies. The next highest redshifts belong to other, larger Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) such as BL Lac objects. Next are compact sources and galaxies which are often found in close visual proximity to larger spiral and elliptical galaxies. These larger galaxies appear to be the most developed but also have the lowest redshifts compared to other extragalactic bodies. So why do smaller objects have higher redshifts if redshifts are not indicative of distance?
One theory postulated by English astronomer Sir Fred Hoyle and Indian astrophysicist Jayant Narlikar is the Hoyle-Narlikar Theory of conformal gravity. This theory proposes that the inertial mass of a particle of matter starts at zero and increases as it interacts with an increasing number of surrounding particles with time. According to this theory, younger and more recently created electrons will have smaller masses than older, less recently created electrons. These less massive electrons will emit lower energy photons with the resulting light redshifted in comparison to the photons emitted by older electrons. If it is presumed that smaller more compact extragalactic bodies are younger objects then this theory nicely explains why these younger objects are more redshifted.
I personally find the Hoyle-Narlikar Theory to be a bit esoteric and ambiguous. Particles don’t have mass until they interact with other particles? How does a particle start with zero mass? This sounds like a theory that can be more readily proven with mathematics than with observation. I personally theorize that particles of matter are drawn to points in the universe by highly focused and extremely powerful gravity wells. These particles accumulate in denser and denser concentrations until they eventually ignite into stars. The light emitted from these stars is highly redshifted as it passes through this intense gravitational field. As more particles accumulate and more stars are formed the gravity well expands and loses strength in proportion to its size. The accumulation of stars continues to grow as the gravitational pull on their emitted light continues to weaken, resulting in decreasing redshifts. This theory explains how the smallest visible extragalactic objects, quasars, have the highest redshifts while the largest and most well developed galaxies have the lowest redshifts.
This theory could also describe a system of development from quasars to the aforementioned BL Lac objects, then compact companion galaxies, and finally larger and more diffused galaxies. An American astronomer by the name of Halton Arp has already outlined a very similar method of extragalactic object development in his books Quasars, Redshifts and Controversies (Interstellar Media, 1987), Seeing Red: Redshifts, Cosmology and Academic Science (Apeiron, 1998) and Catalogue of Discordant Redshift Associations (Apeiron, 2003). A diagram of this outline can be viewed on Dr. Arp’s website here. It should be noted that while making observations for his well known Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies, Halton Arp was one of the first astronomers to notice and report discordant redshifts between extragalactic objects. Dr. Arp’s diagram shows the ejection of high redshift objects along the minor axis of a parent galaxy. Here quasars decrease in redshift and fall back to the parent galaxy as companion galaxies. X-Ray QSO’s (Quasi-stellar objects) and BL Lac objects are ejected and in turn eject secondary high redshift objects and thereby continue the cycle.
This diagram clearly illustrates not only how small high redshift objects develop into larger less redshifted objects, but also where small high redshift objects originate. However the diagram does neglect to show a couple of other aspects of extragalactic object development that I feel should be included in any theory on the subject. The first is the budding or splitting off of higher redshift quasars and other compact objects from larger and lower redshift galaxies. There are more visually apparent examples of this process in the observed universe than there are of ejections along the minor axis of extragalactic bodies. The second aspect describes what happens to compact galaxies later in their development. I believe that these galaxies, many of which have become companion galaxies to larger galaxies, will themselves grow into larger galaxies. They will continue to grow and become more diffuse until, when viewed from Earth, they become barely distinguishable from the night sky itself. Astronomers are puzzled as to how these Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies can maintain a coherent shape while becoming so diffuse. I theorize that even though their gravity wells are extremely weak and greatly spread out at this point, they are still stronger than the gravitational pull of surrounding bodies. Eventually, however, the gravitational pull of nearby objects will become stronger than that of the gravity wells holding the LSB galaxies together and they will be pulled apart. Their matter will be drawn into intergalactic space to perhaps one day again be pulled into one or more tiny but powerful gravity wells and begin the cycle all over again.
Of course my theory does not explain how these small focused points of intense gravity originate or what causes them to expand and eventually disperse into space. However, I am certain that with further observation and research not only will we begin to understand the action of these gravity wells but we might one day discover their origins and meanings. But that’s enough theorizing for one page. Maybe one day this page will become the start of a long and interesting discussion. In the meantime I encourage you to peruse my posts of discordant redshift examples and help contribute to the collection and its true explanation.